- The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth;
- Volcanoes—causes and products, Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of the zone of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics.
Geomorphology and Remote Sensing
- Basic concepts of geomorphology.
- Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage.
- Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation.
- Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology;
- Coastal geomorphology;
- Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian sub-continent.
- Aerial photographs and their interpretation—merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum.
- Orbiting Satellites and Sensor Systems.
- Indian Remote Sensing Satellites.
- Satellite data products;
- Applications of remote sensing in geology;
- The Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)—its applications.
- Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions.
- Folds and faults classification and mechanics;
- Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation.
- Species—definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils.
- Modes of preservation of fossils;
- Different kinds of microfossils;
- Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies;
- Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidea.
- Siwalik fauna.
- Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.
- Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostrati-graphic, biostratigraphic, chrono-stratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance.
- Major boundary problems—Cambrian/ Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian sub-continent in the geological past.
- Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.
Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology
- Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry.
- Salt water intrusion.
- Types of wells.
- Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater;
- Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation;
- Earthquake-resistant structures.
- Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography.
- Physical and chemical characteristics of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals.
- Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.
Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology
- Generation and crystallisation of magmas.
- Crystallisation of albite—anorthite, diopside—anorthite and diopside—wollastonite—silica systems.
- Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks.
- Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
- Types and agents of metamorphism.
- Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule.
- Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks.
- Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages. Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites.
- Granulite terrains of India.
- Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; diagenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance.
- Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedimentary basins of India.
- Ore, ore mineral and gangue, tenor of ore. Classification of ore deposits; Processes of formation of mineral deposits; Controls of ore localisation; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India, National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources.
- Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.
- Methods of prospecting—geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling.
- Estimation of reserves of ore; Methods of exploration and mining-metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.
Geochemistry and Environmental Geology
- Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites.
- Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements.
- Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isomorphism and polymorphism.
- Elementary thermodynamics.
- Natural hazards—floods, mass wasting, coastal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution. Environment protection—legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.