General Geology

  • The Solar System, meteorites, origin and interior of the earth and age of earth;
  • Volcanoes—causes and products, Volcanic belts. Earthquakes—causes, effects, seismic of the zone of India; Island arcs, trenches and mid-ocean ridges; Continental drift; Seafloor spreading, plate tectonics. 
  • Isostasy.

Geomorphology and Remote Sensing

  • Basic concepts of geomorphology. 
  • Weathering and soil formations; Landforms, slopes and drainage. 
  • Geomorphic cycles and their interpretation. 
  • Morphology and its relation to structures and lithology; 
  • Coastal geomorphology; 
  • Applications of geomorphology in mineral prospecting, civil engineering; hydrology and environmental studies; Geomorphology of Indian sub-continent.
  • Aerial photographs and their interpretation—merits and limitations; The Electromagnetic spectrum. 
  • Orbiting Satellites and Sensor Systems. 
  • Indian Remote Sensing Satellites. 
  • Satellite data products;
  • Applications of remote sensing in geology; 
  • The Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS)—its applications.

Structural Geology

  • Principles of geologic mapping and map reading, projection diagrams, Stress and strain ellipsoid and stress-strain relationships of elastic, plastic and viscous materials; Strain markers in deformed rocks. Behaviour of minerals and rocks under deformation conditions. 
  • Folds and faults classification and mechanics; 
  • Structural analysis of folds, foliations, lineations, joints and faults, unconformities; Time-relationship between crystallization and deformation.


  • Species—definition and nomenclature; Megafossils and Microfossils. 
  • Modes of preservation of fossils; 
  • Different kinds of microfossils; 
  • Application of microfossils in correlation, petroleum exploration, paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic studies; 
  • Evolutionary trend in Hominidae, Equidae and Proboscidea. 
  • Siwalik fauna.
  • Gondwana flora and fauna and its importance; Index fossils and their significance.

Indian Stratigraphy

  • Classification of stratigraphic sequences: lithostrati-graphic, biostratigraphic, chrono-stratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic and their interrelationships; Distribution and classification of Precambrian rocks of India; Study of stratigraphic distribution and lithology of Phanerozoic rocks of India with reference to fauna, flora and economic importance. 
  • Major boundary problems—Cambrian/ Precambrian, Permian/Triassic, Cretaceous/Tertiary and Pliocene/Pleistocene; Study of climatic conditions, paleogeography and igneous activity in the Indian sub-continent in the geological past. 
  • Tectonic framework of India. Evolution of the Himalayas.

Hydrogeology and Engineering Geology

  • Hydrologic cycle and genetic classification of water; Movement of subsurface water; Springs; Porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and storage coefficient, classification of aquifers; Water-bearing characteristics of rocks; Groundwater chemistry. 
  • Salt water intrusion.
  • Types of wells. 
  • Drainage basin morphometry; Exploration for groundwater;
  • Groundwater recharge; Problems and management of groundwater; Rainwater harvesting; Engineering properties of rocks; Geological investigations for dams, tunnels highways, railway and bridges; Rock as construction material; Landslides causes, prevention and rehabilitation;
  • Earthquake-resistant structures.



  • Classification of crystals into systems and classes of symmetry; International system of crystallographic notation; Use of projection diagrams to represent crystal symmetry; Elements of X-ray crystallography.
  • Physical and chemical characteristics of rock forming silicate mineral groups; Structural classification of silicates; Common minerals of igneous and metamorphic rocks; Minerals of the carbonate, phosphate, sulphide and halide groups; Clay minerals.
  • Optical properties of common rock forming minerals; Pleochroism, extinction angle, double refraction, birefringence, twinning and dispersion in minerals.

Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology

  • Generation and crystallisation of magmas. 
  • Crystallisation of albite—anorthite, diopside—anorthite and diopside—wollastonite—silica systems. 
  • Bowen’s Reaction Principle; Magmatic differentiation and assimilation. Petrogenetic significance of the textures and structures of igneous rocks. 
  • Petrography and petrogenesis of granite, syenite, diorite, basic and ultrabasic groups, charnockite, anorthosite and alkaline rocks. Carbonatites. Deccan volcanic province.
  • Types and agents of metamorphism. 
  • Metamorphic grades and zones; Phase rule. 
  • Facies of regional and contact metamorphism; ACF and AKF diagrams; Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. 
  • Metamorphism of arenaceous, argillaceous and basic rocks; Minerals assemblages. Retrograde metamorphism; Metasomatism and granitisation, migmatites. 
  • Granulite terrains of India.

Sedimentary Petrology

  • Sediments and Sedimentary rocks: Processes of formation; diagenesis and lithification; Clastic and non-clastic rocks-their classification, petrography and depositional environment; Sedimentary facies and provenance. 
  • Sedimentary structures and their significance. Heavy minerals and their significance. Sedimentary basins of India.

Economic Geology

  • Ore, ore mineral and gangue, tenor of ore. Classification of ore deposits; Processes of formation of mineral deposits; Controls of ore localisation; Ore textures and structures; Metallogenic epochs and provinces; Geology of the important Indian deposits of aluminium, chromium, copper, gold, iron, lead, zinc, manganese, titanium, uranium and thorium and industrial minerals; Deposits of coal and petroleum in India, National Mineral Policy; Conservation and utilization of mineral resources. 
  • Marine mineral resources and Law of Sea.

Mining Geology

  • Methods of prospecting—geological, geophysical, geochemical and geobotanical; Techniques of sampling. 
  • Estimation of reserves of ore; Methods of exploration and mining-metallic ores, industrial minerals, marine mineral resources and building stones. Mineral beneficiation and ore dressing.

Geochemistry and Environmental Geology

  • Cosmic abundance of elements. Composition of the planets and meteorites. 
  • Structure and composition of earth and distribution of elements. 
  • Trace elements. Elements of crystal chemistry-types of chemical bonds, coordination number. Isomorphism and polymorphism.
  • Elementary thermodynamics.
  • Natural hazards—floods, mass wasting, coastal hazards, earthquakes and volcanic activity and mitigation; Environmental impact of urbanization, mining, industrial and radioactive waste disposal, use of fertilizers, dumping of mine waste and fly-ash. Pollution of ground and surface water, marine pollution. Environment protection—legislative measures in India; Sea level changes: causes and impact.