Physical Geography


  • Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; 
  • Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; 
  • Fundamentals of geomagnetism; 
  • Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; 
  • Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics;
  • Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Landscape development; Denudation chronology;
  • Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology;
  • Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.


  • Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation;  Atmospheric stability and instability. 
  • Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.


  • Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans;
  • Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.


Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agroforestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centers.

Environmental Geography

Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography

Perspectives in Human Geography

  • Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis;
  • Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis;
  • Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development index.

Economic Geography

  • World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; 
  • World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

Population and Settlement Geography

  • Growth and distribution of world population;
  • Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; 
  • Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.
  • Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements;
  • Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe;
  • Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

Regional Planning

  • Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation;
  • Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies;
  • Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography

  • System analysis in Human geography;
  • Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; 
  • Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location;
  • Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth.
  • Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.



Physical Setting

  • Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; 
  • Structure and relief; 
  • Drainage system and watersheds; 
  • Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian
  • monsoons and rainfall patterns; 
  • Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; 
  • Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.


  • Land, surface and groundwater, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wildlife resources and their conservation; 
  • Energy crisis.


  • Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; 
  • Land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; 
  • Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming;
  • Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; 
  • Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.


  • Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and agro-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector undertakings;
  • Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

Transport, Communication and Trade

  • Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline networks and their complementary roles in regional development;
  • Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones;
  • Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

Cultural Setting

  • Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; 
  • religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; 
  • Cultural regions; 
  • Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; 
  • Population problems and policies; Health indicators.


  • Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;
  • Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and associated problems; Town planning;
  • Problems of urbanisation and remedies.
  • Regional Development and Planning: 
  • Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; 
  • Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; 
  • Regional planning and development of island territories.

Political Aspects

  • Geographical basis of Indian federalism; 
  • State reorganisation;
  • Emergence of new states; 
  • Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; 
  • International boundary of India and related issues; 
  • Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs;
  • Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

Contemporary Issues

  • Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; 
  • Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; 
  • Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.