Atomic Structure

  • Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle Schrodinger wave equation (time independent)
  • Interpretation of wave function
  • particle in one- dimensional box
  • quantum numbers
  • hydrogen atom wave functions
  • Shapes of s, p and d orbitals.

Chemical bonding

  • Ionic bond, characteristics of ionic compounds, lattice energy, Born-Haber cycle
  • Covalent bond and its general characteristics, polarities of bonds in molecules and their dipole moments
  • Valence bond theory, concept of resonance and resonance energy
  • Molecular orbital theory (LCAO method)
  • bonding H2 +, H2 He2 + to Ne2, NO, CO, HF, CN–,
  • Comparison of valence bond and molecular orbital theories, bond order, bond strength and bond length.

Solid State

  • Crystal systems
  • Designation of crystal faces, lattice structures and unit cell
  • Bragg’s law
  • X-ray diffraction by crystals
  • Close packing, radius ratio rules, calculation of some limiting radius ratio values
  • Structures of NaCl, ZnS, CsCl, CaF2
  • Stoichiometric and nonstoichiometric defects, impurity defects, semiconductors.

The Gaseous State and Transport Phenomenon

  • Equation of state for real gases, intermolecular interactions, and critical phenomena and
  • liquefaction of gases
  • Maxwell’s distribution of speeds, intermolecular collisions, collisions on the wall and effusion
  • Thermal conductivity and viscosity of ideal gases.

Liquid State

  • Kelvin equation
  • Surface tension and surface energy, wetting and contact angle, interfacial tension and capillary action.


  • Work, heat and internal energy
  • First law of thermodynamics.
  • Second law of thermodynamics
  • entropy as a state function, entropy changes in various processes, entropy-reversibility and irreversibility, Free energy functions
  • Thermodynamic equation of state
  • Maxwell relations
  • Temperature, volume and pressure dependence of U, H, -T effect and inversion temperature
  • criteria for equilibrium, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities
  • Nernst heat theorem, introductory idea of third law of thermodynamics.

Phase Equilibria and Solutions

  • Clausius-Clapeyron equation
  • phase diagram for a pure substance
  • phase equilibria in binary systems, partially miscible liquids—upper and lower critical solution temperatures
  • partial molar quantities, their significance and determination; excess thermodynamic functions and their determination.


  • Debye-Huckel theory of strong electrolytes and Debye-Huckel limiting Law for various equilibrium and transport properties.
  • Galvanic cells, concentration cells
  • electrochemical series, measurement of e.m.f. of cells and its applications fuel cells and batteries.
  • Processes at electrodes
  • double layer at the interface
  • rate of charge transfer, current density
  • overpotential; electroanalytical techniques : amperometry, ion selective electrodes and their use.

Chemical Kinetics

  • Differential and integral rate equations for zeroth, first, second and fractional order reactions 
  • Rate equations involving reverse, parallel, consecutive and chain reactions
  • Branching chain and explosions
  • effect of temperature and pressure on rate constant. 
  • Study of fast reactions by stop-flow and relaxation methods. 
  • Collisions and transition state theories.


  • Absorption of light
  • decay of excited state by different routes
  • photochemical reactions between hydrogen and halogens and their quantum yields.

Surface Phenomena and Catalysis

  • Adsorption from gases and solutions on solid adsorbents
  • Langmuir and B.E.T. adsorption isotherms
  • determination of surface area, characteristics and mechanism of reaction on heterogeneous catalysts.

Bio-inorganic Chemistry

Metal ions in biological systems and their role in ion-transport across the membranes (molecular mechanism), oxygen-uptake proteins, cytochromes and ferredoxins.

Coordination Chemistry

  • Bonding in transition of metal complexes. Valence bond theory, crystal field theory and its modifications; applications of theories in the explanation of magnetism and electronic spectra of metal complexes.
  • Isomerism in coordination compounds; IUPAC nomenclature of coordination compounds; stereochemistry of complexes with 4 and 6 coordination numbers; chelate effect and polynuclear complexes; trans effect and its theories; kinetics of substitution reactions in square-planar complexes; thermodynamic and kinetic stability of complexes.
  • EAN rule, Synthesis structure and reactivity of metal carbonyls; carboxylate anions, carbonyl hydrides and metal nitrosyl compounds.
  • Complexes with aromatic systems, synthesis, structure and bonding in metal olefin complexes, alkyne complexes and cyclopentadienyl complexes; coordinative unsaturation, oxidative addition reactions, insertion reactions, fluxional molecules and their characterization; Compounds with metal—metal bonds and metal atom clusters.

Main Group Chemistry

Boranes, borazines, phosphazenes and cyclic phosphazene, silicates and silicones, Interhalogen compounds; Sulphur—nitrogen compounds, noble gas compounds.

General Chemistry of ‘f’ Block Element

Lanthanides and actinides: separation, oxidation states, magnetic and spectral properties; lanthanide contraction.


Delocalized Covalent Bonding

Aromaticity, anti-aromaticity; annulenes, azulenes, tropolones, fulvenes, sydnones.

Different Reactions

  • Reaction mechanisms : General methods (both kinetic and non-kinetic) of study of mechanisms or organic reactions : isotopes, method cross-over experiment, intermediate trapping, stereochemistry; energy of activation; thermodynamic control and kinetic control of reactions.
  • Reactive intermediates : Generation, geometry, stability and reactions of carbonium ions and carbanions, free radicals, carbenes, benzynes and nitrenes.
  • Substitution reactions :—SN 1, SN 2, and SN i, mechanisms ; neighbouring group participation; electrophilic and nucleophilic reactions of aromatic compounds including heterocyclic compounds—pyrrole, furan, thiophene and indole.
  • Elimination reactions :—E1, E2 and E1cb mechanisms; orientation in E2 reactions—Saytzeff and Hoffmann; pyrolytic syn elimination—acetate pyrolysis, Chugaev and Cope eliminations.
  • Addition reactions :— Electrophilic addition to C=C and C≡C; nucleophilic addition to C=O, C≡N‎, conjugated olefins and carbonyls.
  • Reactions and Rearrangements
    • Pinacol-pinacolone, Hoffmann, Beckmann, Baeyer-Villiger, Favorskii, Fries, Claisen, Cope, Stevens and Wagner—Meerwein rearrangements.
    • Aldol condensation, Claisen condensation, Dieckmann, Perkin, Knoevenagel, Witting, Clemmensen, Wolff-Kishner, Cannizzaro and von Richter reactions; Stobbe, benzoin and acyloin condensations; Fischer indole synthesis, Skraup synthesis, Bischler-Napieralski, Sandmeyer, Reimer-Tiemann and Reformatsky reactions.
  • Pericyclic reactions :—Classification and examples; Woodward-Hoffmann rules—electrocyclic reactions, cycloaddition reactions [2+2 and 4+2] and sigmatropic shifts [1, 3; 3, 3 and 1, 5], FMO approach.
  • Preparation and Properties of Polymers: Organic polymers polyethylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, teflon, nylon, terylene, synthetic and natural rubber.(ii) Biopolymers: Structure of proteins, DNA and RNA.

Synthetic Uses of Reagents

  • OsO4, HlO4, CrO3, Pb(OAc)4, SeO2, NBS, B2H6, Na-Liquid NH3, LiAIH4, NaBH4, n-BuLi, MCPBA.
  • Photochemistry :—Photochemical reactions of simple organic compounds, excited and ground states, singlet and triplet states, Norrish-Type I and Type II reactions.


Principle and applications in structure elucidation 

Rotational—Diatomic molecules; isotopic substitution and rotational constants.

  • Vibrational—Diatomic molecules, linear triatomic molecules, specific frequencies of functional groups in polyatomic molecules.
    • Electronic—Singlet and triplet states. N conjugated double bonds and conjugated carbonyls Woodward-Fieser rules; Charge transfer spectra.
    • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1H NMR): Basic principle; chemical shift and spin-spin interaction and coupling constants.
    • Mass Spectrometry :—Parent peak, base peak, metastable peak, McLafferty rearrangement.